About these endnotes
This is where we provide references and in-depth information about everything in the Honesty playbook.
We honor and thank the scientists whose research inspired this Playbook. Any errors or omissions are ours.
People are more likely to tell big lies after they first tell small lies (Welsh, Ordóñez, Snyder, & Christian, 2015).
After adults lied to them, school-aged children were more likely to cheat and lie themselves (Hays & Carver, 2014).
Kids who are told they have a reputation as a “good kid” are less likely to lie and cheat (Fu et al., 2016), but when they’re told they’re smart, they’re more motivated to cheat in order to appear smarter (Zhao, Heyman, Chen, & Lee, 2017). So instead or emphasizing intelligence and achievement, emphasize prosocial values like benevolence (Pulfrey & Butera, 2013). Otherwise you get Enron: an emphasis on performance that encourages people to use deceptive practices to get ahead.
Research shows that simple reminders of ethical standards reduce dishonesty (Mazar, Amir, & Ariely, 2008). For instance, reminders of the Ten Commandments increase honesty, even among non-religious people.
Simply promising to tell the truth increases integrity (Evans & Lee, 2010). Partly for this reason, honor codes are an effective tool for reducing dishonesty (McCabe & Trevino, 1993).
Evans, A. D., & Lee, K. (2010). Promising to tell the truth makes 8‐to 16‐year‐olds more honest. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 28(6), 801-811.
Fu, G., Heyman, G. D., Qian, M., Guo, T., & Lee, K. (2016). Young children with a positive reputation to maintain are less likely to cheat. Developmental Science, 19(2), 275-283.
Hays, C., & Carver, L. J. (2014). Follow the liar: The effects of adult lies on children’s honesty. Developmental Science, 17(6), 977-983.
Mazar, N., Amir, O., & Ariely, D. (2008). The dishonesty of honest people: A theory of self-concept maintenance. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(6), 633-644.
McCabe, D. L., & Trevino, L. K. (1993). Academic dishonesty: Honor codes and other contextual influences. The Journal of Higher Education, 64(5), 522-538.
Pulfrey, C., & Butera, F. (2013). Why neoliberal values of self-enhancement lead to cheating in higher education: A motivational account. Psychological Science, 24(11), 2153-2162.
Welsh, D. T., Ordóñez, L. D., Snyder, D. G., & Christian, M. S. (2015). The slippery slope: How small ethical transgressions pave the way for larger future transgressions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(1), 114.
Zhao, L., Heyman, G. D., Chen, L., & Lee, K. (2017). Praising young children for being smart promotes cheating. Psychological Science, 28(12), 1868-1870.